Improved detection suggests all Merkel cell carcinomas harbor Merkel polyomavirus.

December 1, 2012

Publisher

The Journal of Clinical Investigation

Publication Date

December 1, 2012

Authors

Rodig SJ, Cheng J, Wardzala J, DoRosario A, Scanlon JJ, Laga AC, Martinez-Fernandez A, Barletta JA, Bellizzi AM, Sadasivam S, Holloway DT, Cooper DJ, Kupper TS, Wang LC, DeCaprio JA

Abstract

A human polyomavirus was recently discovered in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) specimens. The Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) genome undergoes clonal integration into the host cell chromosomes of MCC tumors and expresses small T antigen and truncated large T antigen. Previous studies have consistently reported that MCPyV can be detected in approximately 80% of all MCC tumors. We sought to increase the sensitivity of detection of MCPyV in MCC by developing antibodies capable of detecting large T antigen by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we expanded the repertoire of quantitative PCR primers specific for MCPyV to improve the detection of viral DNA in MCC. Here we report that a novel monoclonal antibody detected MCPyV large T antigen expression in 56 of 58 (97%) unique MCC tumors. PCR analysis specifically detected viral DNA in all 60 unique MCC tumors tested. We also detected inactivating point substitution mutations of TP53 in the two MCC specimens that lacked large T antigen expression and in only 1 of 56 tumors positive for large T antigen. These results indicate that MCPyV is present in MCC tumors more frequently than previously reported and that mutations in TP53 tend to occur in MCC tumors that fail to express MCPyV large T antigen.

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